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Table 2 Quality assessment criteria for pre-post studies without control arm

From: Systematic review on human resources for health interventions to improve maternal health outcomes: evidence from low- and middle-income countries

Study featuresa Assessment
1. Study based on explicit theory Yes/no/unclear
2. Adequate description of how intervention strategy adapted to local conditions Yes/no/unclear
3. Example given of materials or process Yes/no/unclear
4. Adequate description of resources required to carry out interventions Yes/no/unclear
5. Measure outcome before and after intervention Yes/no/unclear
6. Measurement method same before and after Yes/no/unclear
7. Period between education and outcome more than 1 year Yes/no/unclear
8. Author claimed positive results for interventions Yes/no/unclear
9. Paper included discussion of possible biases and caveats (or limitations) Yes/no/unclear
10. Paper included P values or confidence interval Yes/no/unclear
11. Analysis employed some form of modeling such as regression Yes/no/unclear
12. Exposure to intervention monitored Yes/no/unclear
  1. aAdopted from Loevinsohn [28]